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What Every Teen Needs to Know About HIV and AIDS.

There are so many misconceptions surrounding HIV and AIDS; myth and misunderstanding fueled by the media, by fear, and by ignorance. Let's take a look at the truth; five things every teen should know about HIV and AIDS.

HIV Does Not Discriminate
Since the epidemic began over twenty years ago, stereotypes have surfaced as to who are HIV infected people. White gay males, drug users and prostitutes are labeled as the faces of HIV and AIDS. Nothing could be further from the truth. HIV knows no boundaries and certainly doesn’t discriminate. The fact is that anyone can get HIV, from elderly men and women living in a nursing home to teens planning their next prom. Men and women, adults and children, rich and poor, the homeless and the college professor; HIV can infect anyone who doesn't take the proper precautions. Keep this in mind the next time you hear HIV cant impact you. Since the epidemic began, over 50,000 teens like yourself have contracted HIV and progressed to AIDS, many of them dying before the age of twenty.

Oral Sex Is Not As Safe As You Think
While most everyone knows how HIV is spread from person to person, most people underestimate the risk involved in some behaviors. Oral sex is often thought of as the "safer sex". Its incidence among young adults and teens is well documented. In fact, some studies have shown that oral sex in high schools is as common as kissing was twenty years ago. Many adolescents believe that oral sex is a safe way to engage in sex, free from the worry of pregnancy and disease. The truth is that oral sex is not as safe as you think. Studies have concluded that infected bodily fluids such as semen and vaginal secretions have high concentrations of HIV and can enter the blood stream through the mucous membranes of the mouth. One such study revealed that in one group of newly infected HIV positive young adults, many reported their only sexual contact was oral sex.

There Is More To Worry About Than Pregnancy
Even with all the media attention HIV gets these days, many teens still believe that the only risk associated with unprotected sex is pregnancy. So, to prevent pregnancy, teens used birth control techniques such as oral sex or the withdrawal method (pulling out) prior to ejaculation. Unfortunately, there is more to be concerned about. The incidence of sexually transmitted disease, including HIV, is on the rise among teens. Many of these STDs are for life, meaning there is no cure. Herpes, syphilis, and HIV are real concerns that if contracted will be with you a lifetime. For these reasons, to minimize your risk of STDs and HIV, latex condoms are a must each and every time you have oral, anal or vaginal sex.

Sometimes People Hide the Truth / Sometimes People Don't Truly Know
Not every teen ignores the risks of HIV. Some ask the important questions of their partners but what they do with the answers they receive is just as important. Think about it for a moment. How many people will admit they are HIV infected if asked by the new love in their life? How many will admit to their sexual history when they are trying to win the affections of their new love interest? How many people really know their HIV status and the status of the people they have been with in the past?

Unfortunately, in part due to the prejudices surrounding HIV and AIDS, many people are not willing to disclose their status to potential sexual partners for fear of discrimination and prejudice. Furthermore, many are reluctant to ask the questions of their partners prior to sex or if they do, the tendency is to take the answer they get as fact. The only way anyone knows their HIV status is to get tested. A claim of “my past partner was negative” is only acceptable if they are backed by a negative test.

HIV Kills And There Is No Cure
We hear about the success of HIV medications. People are living longer due to the advent of powerful HIV medications that help fight the virus. Unfortunately, the medications are not a cure. While they do allow for longer lives, HIV still kills. Since the epidemic began, over one half million people have died from HIV and AIDS. Liver disease, pneumonia, and serious infection of the brain and other internal organs are constant companions of those living and fighting the disease. The medicines are not a quick fix to an HIV infection. They are difficult to take and cause many side effects such as fat accumulations in the stomach and neck, diarrhea, extreme fatigue, rashes, and vomiting. They have to be taken many times each day and often lead to liver and kidney disease. And they cost thousands of dollars each year. The best way to stay healthy is not through HIV medications, but by avoiding HIV in the first place.

Misconceptions can be dangerous, especially where HIV and AIDS are concerned. Know the important facts about HIV and insist on condoms if sex is part of your relationship. Remember, HIV and AIDS are for life and they do kill. For info on women and HIV, go there. For info on the HIV Rapid Test, go there...


It can be hard to reach teens with health and safety information, because many of them believe "it can't happen to me. " Even so, it's very important that you talk with your teen about HIV/AIDS to help protect him or her from the disease.

Quick Facts


  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS.
  • AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
  • HIV weakens the body's ability to fight germs and disease.
  • While treatment options are helping people with AIDS to live longer, there is still no cure for AIDS.
  • Most people develop AIDS about 10 to 15 years after becoming infected with HIV.
  • Between 1990 and 1995 the incidence of AIDS among people ages 13-25 years old rose by almost 20%.

Tips for Parents

Tell your teen about ways people can and cannot be infected with HIV

Help protect your teen from HIV/AIDS
As a parent of a teen, you have the opportunity to influence your child's health behaviors. You can do this by sharing this information and helping him or her develop skills to avoid behaviors that may lead to infection with HIV.

Remind your teen that...

  • Not having sex (abstinence) and not sharing needles of any kind (for example, for drug use, body piercing, tattoos) are the surest ways to avoid HIV infection.
  • Anyone can become infected with HIV by having unprotected sex even just once with an infected person.
  • If a person chooses to have sex, using a latex condom (rubber) correctly every time will greatly reduce the risk of transmitting HIV.
  • You can't tell if people are infected with HIV by looking at them. Many people who have HIV do not even know they are infected. A blood test is the only way to know for sure whether a person is infected with HIV.
  • Alcohol and other drugs affect decision-making skills and may make a person more likely to take risks that can lead to HIV infection.
  • You are willing to listen and talk if he or she is think-ing about becoming sexually active.

Talk with your teen about ways to handle peer pressure
Talk with your teen about how to avoid risky situations and to refuse sex and drugs in ways that allow him or her to fit in with peers. To feel comfortable talking openly with you, your teen needs to know that you will not punish him or her for being honest.


Ways a person cannot get infected with HIV

HIV is not spread by casual contact. This means a person cannot get HIV from:

  • going to school with someone who has HIV
  • holding hands
  • casual kissing
  • hugging
  • playing ball
  • sharing eating utensils
  • using public toilets
  • mosquito bites
  • donating blood

Ways a person can get infected with HIV

HIV is transmitted through the exchange of blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. HIV may be transmitted in the following ways:

  • Having unprotected vaginal, anal, or oral sex with a person who has HIV.
  • Injecting drugs with a syringe that has already been used by a person who has HIV.
  • Sharing infected needles for body piercing or tattooing.
  • An infected mother can pass HIV on to her baby during pregnancy or childbirth, or by breastfeeding.


Additional Outside Sources
Below is additional information and resources. Some are links to other Internet pages, which might have information on health topics of interest to you. PAMF, however, does not sponsor or endorse any of these sites, nor does PAMF guarantee the accuracy of the information contained on them. In addition, PAMF has no control over the privacy practices of external Web sites. The user should read and understand the policies of all Web sites with respect to their privacy practices. These links are provided for your general information and education only, and should NOT be relied upon for personal diagnosis or treatment. If you have questions, please contact your health care provider.




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Copyright 2001, The Urban Eye